FAREWELL PEOPLE!

 

 

BYEEEEEEE EVERYONE! 😥 …ALTHOUGH WE’VE COME TO THE ENDDD OFFFF THE ROOOOAD! …yea X_X… I WILL BE BACK TO BLOG ABOUT MORE BIOCHEM IN YEAR TWO :)…. JM THIS IS FOR YOU IN PARTICULAR THANKS FOR BEING THE MOST AWESOME LECTURER…EVER! 

 

Before I get into what the vid was about let me just say…”THIS IS THEEE mhm!” The animation is just too cute and makes the video very simple and easy to follow. Did I mention it was short?..mhm yes it is..short and to the point. Anyone can learn the basics of fatty acids form this. However, it would have been nice if he actually gave functions of lipids like the title MADE ME ASSUME! and demonstrating how to assign delta designation would’ve been great also. No worries tho I’ll update you guys on that 🙂

What I learned:

-Physical state of lipids at room temperature is determined by its fatty acid composition.

-There are two types of fatty acids: Saturated and unsaturated.

Saturated – eg. Stearic

  • No C=C double bonds
  • Linear structure

Unsaturated-eg. Oleic (C=C at 9th position)

  • One or more C=C double bonds
  • Kinked therefore cannot pack as tightly in a solid as saturated fatty acids.

Due to the molecular structure of the fatty acids, their melting points are affected. Using Oleic and Stearic, on increasing the temperature, the Oleic melts first and it is thus a liquid at room temperature. A higher temperature is required to melt Stearic hence it is a solid at room temperature.

QUICK FIX!: GIVING DELTA DESIGNATION

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2=CH2-CH2-COOH

-Always take the carboxylic end.

> 1st  # is the # of C atoms. Here it is 8.

> 2nd # is the # of C=C double bonds. Here it is 1.

> Delta,Δ– is the position of the C=C double bond, from carboxylic end. Here it is 3.

Thus, the delta designation is 8:1 (Δ3)

 

 

THE BASICS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS

Definition: A complex organic substance present in living cells whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.

DNA(Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA(Ribonucleic acid) are two types of nucleic acids. The transcription process is responsible for DNA—>RNA and translation for RNA—>Protein.

Nucleic acids contain all the CNHOPS(Carbon Nitrogen Hydrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Sulphur) elements except sulphur

Ribose sugar make up nucleic acids. C1-Base C2-OH: ribose H:deoxyribose C5: Phosphate.

Nucleotide: Base,sugar, phosphate

Nucleoside: Base, sugar

Pyrimidines & purines make up the base pairs in the double helix.

Pyrimidines (1 ring) : CUT

DNA: Cytosine & Thymine , RNA: Cytosine & Uracil

Purines (2 rings) Adenine & Guanine

A-T form two H bonds, C-G form three H bonds. *DNA rich in C-G would be more heat resistant due to larger number of H bonds*

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TAY-SACHS DISEASE

I did this video earlier on but idk it just disappeared :(..I was going to do the vid review on it but it’s already so short and to the point…so just watch for the sake of gaining random knowledge.

TCA sung to Shaggy-Angel..words can’t explain how much I love this!… :D

SCIENCE IS AS GREAT AS IT GETS!…GLYCOLYSIS FUN & HISTORY!

 FUN IN GOOD OLD SCIENCE!!

Wandering on the internet like a lost soul…AS USUAL..I came across this animation of glycolysis which I found somewhat entertaining with the moving molecules and colours…I’m like a five year old..colour gets my attention..anywhere..anytime!

http://www.johnkyrk.com/glycolysis.html

HOWEVER, I do believe we have never met the man behind this discovery…IT WAS ALL AN ACCIDENT?? 

Imagel

Eduard Buchner was a chemist who served in the German Army in World War I.He conducted research in the chemistry of diazoalkanes and was the first chemist to synthesize  pyrazole using, OF COURSE, the Buchner reaction.

In 1897 while assisting his brother in research he thought adding sugar to the protein extract would preserve it (his brother’s experiment) but ummm…SOMEONE WAS WRONG! In fact he was greeted with the surprise of a bubbling mixture. The sugar was transformed into alcohol…OH BOY!

This discovery earned him the Noble Prize in Chemistry in 1907. Sadly, in a tragic turn of events..while serving his country he was fatally wounded.. RIP.

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MISTAKES CAN BECOME MONEY MAKERS!

REFERENCE:

http://www.nndb.com/people/227/000099927/

PUBLISHED PAPER REVIEW #2… DNA MUTATIONS

DNA MUTATIONS

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 DNA mutations are a result of changes in the base sequence of the DNA. Mutations can be caused by :

  • SUBSTITUTION of a base pair which is the most common form seen.
  • DELETION of one or more base pairs.
  • INSERTION of one of more base pairs.

The article emphasized on the substitution of the base pairs, noting there are two types: TRANSITION: one purine or pyrimidine is replaced by the other.

TRANSVERSION: replacement of purine by pyrimidine or vice versa.

Two scientists, Watson and Crick, suggested that Hydrogen atoms on the base pairs can switch position to form a tautomer. Amino–>Imino and Keto–>Enol.

The tautomers form nonstandard base pairs that assemble in the double helix. These base pairs are what lead to DNA mutation if not corrected by DNA repair methods.

An example is the base pair with 5-bromouracil(thymine analog). It is more likely to form an enol than thymine. When it pairs with Guanine it causes a transition of T-A to C-G.

LINK FOR ARTICLE

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22525/

THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS IT ALL…VISUAL ALWAYS HELPS.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDbK0cxKKsk

This article refreshed my mind on work done prior to University. It was straight to the point therefore making it extremely easy to follow. Thought I put one example you can simply click the link and see the range of DNA mutations and there explanations. We are currently doing nucleic acids so I found it a GREAT way to use knowledge obtained about purines and pyrimidines in understanding the formation of these mutations.

However, I would have preferred the article went in depth concerning DELETION and INSERTION. So to not keep everyone in the dark ..like the article -_-…I posted the video 🙂

1st Published Paper…PDK1(Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-1) INHIBITION IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

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Department of Hematology at Kumamoto University of Medicine conducted experimental research to examine if Multiple Myeloma(MM) cells utilized the glycolytic pathway, the Warburg effect, and if glycolysis inhibition is potentially therapeutic.

MM also known as Kahler’s disease, is a cancer of plasma cells which are responsible for producing antibodies. In MM the affected plasma cells disrupt regular production of normal blood cells when they accumulate in bone marrow.

Results showed that a high expression of LDHA, a gene linked with glycolysis, was an  indication of the disease worsening. High glucose consumption and lactate production in the cancerous cells were linked to the high expresseion of the LDHA.

Studies also showed that high LDHA expression was an indication of high expression of PDK1, c-MYC and GLUT1(genes linked to glycolysis). All glycolysis inhibitors including PDK1 caused death of the MM cells. Thus it was proved that the Warburg effect is functioning in MM cells and using PDK1 is a good therapeutic approach to MM.

This article introduced me to a new disease which I can add to those I’ve already learned throughout my biochemistry course so far. I was able to utilize knowledge about glycolysis and actions of inhibitors to understand the reasoning and evidently the biochemistry behind the research.

Overall it simply expanded my knowledge and has definitely encouraged me to do more reading on existing and developing cancer therapeutic options.

Here’s the link :

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23321518?report=abstract&format=text

I hope it sparks the same interest in you bloggers 🙂

1ST VID REVIEW AND ALSO GOOD PRACTICE FOR A LAB…

In my last post I said that I would focus on the lineweaver burk plot which I am, however, for this biochem blog we are required to do two video reviews on two different biochem topics and sense we are in the enzyme realm and I find this video pretty helpful I decided to do my 1st review on it.

I could have simply watched any other enzyme video to learn about the Lineweaver burk plot but I usually learn better by use of examples. This video was made by a professor from Kent University. If you watched the link above you would see that the reasoning for doing this graph was to characterize a new enzyme.

Vmax is the behaviour of an enzyme when substrate concentration is high.

Vmax/ km is the behaviour when substrate concentration is very low.

km is the affinity of the enzyme. From tutorials we learned that the higher the  km value the lower the substrate affinity.

Before doing the Lineweaver Burk plot finding an estimate is good so that you would have an idea of the range in which your results would be.

For plotting this graph y-axis: 1/rate(min/mM) x-axis: 1/[S](1/mM).

After plotting the values given and drawing the line of bestfit:

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http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/enzyme-kinetics.php#michaelis

Where the line intercepts the y-axis is 1/Vmax

Where it intercepts the negative side of the x-axis is -1/ km

The gradient gives  km/Vmax

As you may notice the Lineweaver Burk plot does not give the values we are looking for but the reciprocal. In order to get the required values we flip the values obtained from the graph.

For me this example was a straight forward explanation of the drawing and use of the Lineweaver Burk plot. The professor took his time and went through each step not assuming that the viewers had prior knowledge of the topic. This made the video very easy to follow and understand. Something else that caught my attention was that along the way he pointed out the difficulties in using this type of data analysis.

What I learned that was interesting??? LOL well… Lineweaver Burk Plot is probably not the best data analysis method as the values are usually one over hence leaving room for a lot of mathematical errors and inaccurate values. Therefore it’s horrible for determining enzyme parameters. :/

HOWEVER if this is on your syllabus like I assume it should be LEARN IT! …SCIENCE HAS ITS REASONS -_-

THANKS FOR READING AND I HOPE THIS VIDEO HELPED YOU AS MUCH AS IT HELPED ME 🙂